TV Tower

TV Tower is an epithermal gold-silver and porphyry copper-gold property located in the Biga District of northwestern Turkey, in an area close to established infrastructure. Discovered by Teck Resources and Pilot Gold (formerly Fronteer Gold), the project hosts two gold discoveries to date and numerous untested targets.  A project-first resource estimate on the KCD target returned an Indicated Mineral Resource of 996,000 AuEq ounces (23.06 Mt at 1.34 g/t AuEq) and an Inferred Mineral Resource of 351,000 AuEq ounces (10.77 Mt at 1.01 g/t AuEq) 2.  Recent drilling has focused on the Kayalı and Karaayı targets (collectively “K2”) in the southern part of the tenure.  Work to date at K2 suggests the presence of a 4-km-long silica cap with multiple gold-oxide targets, associated supergene copper zones and two copper-gold porphyry systems. Drilling to date by Pilot Gold has returned some of the highest-grade gold, silver and copper intervals ever reported in northwestern Turkey.

Favourable location, mining-friendly jurisdiction
The road-accessible project resides on the Biga Peninsula of northwest Turkey, an area featuring numerous open pit coal, quartz and clay mines, ceramics factories and a major power plant. The project has an extensive road network and drill targets all lie on land administered by Turkey’s Ministry of Forestry. There are no settlements or agriculture on the property. TV Tower is located adjacent to Alamos Gold's Kirazlı¹ gold project and 20 km to the northwest of Pilot Gold and Teck Resources Limited’s Halilağa project.

Teck partnership
TV Tower is a joint venture between Pilot Gold (40%) and Teck Madencilik Sanayi Ticaret A.Ş.  (60%), a Turkish subsidiary of Teck Resources Limited.

Pilot Gold is project operator at TV Tower and can increase its interest in the project to 60% through sole-funding of a $21-million exploration program over a three-year period. Pilot Gold has completed its second-year funding commitment.

Favourable geology
The project is largely covered by Cenozoic intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks, which were subject to extensive hydrothermal alteration.  The area is host to a large number of gold, copper, and silver targets, including examples of high sulphidation and low sulphidation epithermal mineralization, as well as copper-gold porphyry mineralization at depth.

Two discoveries, numerous untested targets
First-pass drilling in 2010 resulted in new discoveries at the Küçükdağ (“KCD”) and Kayalı  targets, which host high sulphidation epithermal gold systems. Ongoing exploration by Pilot Gold continues to uncover robust new targets, including the Columbaz low sulphidation epithermal gold-silver vein target, where float samples of the vein have returned up to 92 g/t gold and up to 396 g/t silver.

In 2012, Pilot Gold completed an aggressive exploration program that consisted of 14,440 metres of diamond core drilling at the KCD target, property-wide airborne magnetic/EM geophysical surveys and surface mapping and geochemical sampling. Drilling at the KCD target returned high-grade intercepts (227 g/t gold over 12 metres in KCD-50) as well as long intervals of gold mineralization (5.94 g/t gold over 137.1 metres in KCD-39) in a zone that also contains significant silver and copper. A near-surface zone of silver-only mineralization that partially overlies the high-grade gold-silver-copper zone has also been identified.

In 2013, Pilot undertook core and RC drilling, geologic modeling and surface work.  Seventy two drill holes comprising 16,735 metres were completed at KCD. Drill highlights included:

  • KCD-142: 15.3 g/t gold over 45.2 metres, including 386 g/t gold over 1.5 metres
  • KCD-134: 327 g/t silver over 14.5 metres, including 547 g/t silver over 8.5 metres
  • KCD-108: 93.0 g/t silver over 122.7 metres
  • KCD-102: 25.7 g/t gold, 47.2 g/t silver and 2.12% copper over 16.5 metres, including 142 g/t gold, 141 g/t silver and 3.39% copper over 2.0 metres

A new zone of near-surface, oxidized gold mineralization up to 10 metres thick was discovered through four drill sites spaced approximately 130 metres apart, overlying the silver zone and north of the high-grade sulphide gold zone.

The Kayalı target is a high-sulphidation, shallow oxide gold target located approximately eight kmsouth the KCD target. Discovery hole KYD-01 returned 0.87 g/t gold over 114.5 metres from a depth of 4.5 metres, including 2.85 g/t Au over 15.4 metres. The 2013 drill program comprised approximately 3,500 drilled metres.  Highlights include:

  • KYD-39: 1.29% copper (Cu) over 34.1 metres including 1.90% Cu over 20.8 metres
  • KYD-46: 15.9 g/t gold (Au) over 3 metres, within an interval grading 1.35 g/t Au over 45 metres
  • KYD-51: 1.96 g/t Au over 33.1 metres, including 3.42 g/t Au over 17.4 metres

The 20 km2 Karaayı target, acquired in September, 2013, is contiguous with the Kayalı oxide gold target. The Karaayı tenure contains some of the strongest and most extensive gold-in-soil anomalies in the TV Tower district. Drilling at Karaayı by previous operators intersected near-surface, oxidized, high-sulphidation style gold mineralization, which is on strike to the west of the known oxidized gold mineralized zone at Kayalı.

Infill mapping, soil and rock sampling and compilation of drill data completed by Pilot Gold in 2013 indicate the presence of a potential shallow oxide gold-mineralized system at least four kilometres long between the Kayalı and Karaayı targets. Further drilling revealed the presence of an extensive blanket of supergene copper mineralization underlying the oxide gold zones. In addition, drilling and surface work suggest that two or more copper-gold porphyry systems may be present at K2. 

The Columbaz target is located approximately two kilometres south of the KCD target. This target consists of low-sulphidation gold-silver bearing veins that have been traced discontinuously over an east-northeast strike length of up to 1,000 metres. Veins are up to 10 metres thick in some locations, and float samples of the vein have returned up to 92 g/t gold and up to 396 g/t silver.

Resource estimate

In January 2014, Pilot Gold released an initial independent resource estimate2 for the KCD gold-silver-copper deposit. KCD was divided into a lower gold zone and an overlying silver zone for reporting of the resource estimate, as gold and silver are found in largely spatially distinct zones.

In 15 months, Pilot Gold grew KCD from a gold prospect to a deposit hosting a sizeable silver resource estimated to be Turkey’s third largest silver deposit3.

KCD will continue to progress through ongoing metallurgical testing and preliminary engineering. The silver zone at KCD measures 600 x 600 metres at surface and remains open for expansion to the north and northwest.

Gold Zone Resource:

  • An Indicated Mineral Resource of 11.62 million tonnes at an average grade of 1.22 grams/tonne gold (“g/t Au”) containing 456,000 ounces gold (“Au”)
  • An Inferred Mineral Resource of 1.70 million tonnes at an average grade of 0.85 g/t Au containing 46,000 ounces Au

Silver Zone Resource:

  • An Indicated Mineral Resource of 11.44 million tonnes at an average grade of 46.7 g/t silver (“g/t Ag”) containing 17,182,000 ounces silver (“Ag”)
  • An Inferred Mineral Resource of 9.08 million tonnes at an average grade of 52.7 g/t Ag containing 15,367,000 ounces Ag

In total on a gold equivalence basis, the KCD resource estimate, effective November 6, 2013, delineates an Indicated Mineral Resource of 996,000 gold equivalent “AuEq” ounces (23.06 Mt at 1.34 g/t AuEq) and an Inferred Mineral Resource of 351,000 AuEq ounces (10.77 Mt at 1.01 g/t AuEq) 2.

At KCD, as is typical in high sulphidation systems, gold grades are highly variable and required careful and pragmatic treatment on interpolation. This estimate was completed by ordinary kriging and high grades were controlled by a combination of assay capping and range restriction above grade thresholds, by rock type. An uncapped estimate yields over 40% more gold than this capped estimate.

The Classified Mineral Resource estimate is quoted at a cut-off grade of 0.50 g/t gold equivalent (“AuEq. At a 0.50 g/t AuEq cut-off, the strip ratio is 1.47:1. Gold equivalence was calculated using a ratio of Au:Ag of $1200:$20, at 75% recovery and copper (“Cu”) at $3/lb at 70% recovery.

Our focus today
In 2014, Pilot Gold will focus on drilling at KCD, Kayalı and Karaayı, as well as completing geochemical surveys, geological mapping and target definition across the property. Currently, there are an additional four TV Tower targets in the drill permitting stage. We have also initiated metallurgical testing at KCD, and have begun preliminary engineering, environmental, and economic studies.

1) The proximity to Alamos Gold’s Kirazlı project does not mean Pilot Gold will obtain similar results at its TV Tower project. TV Tower is an early-stage development project without any current resource estimates and there is no certainty that any such resource estimates will ever be established.

2) For further details on the KCD resource estimate, see the NI 43-101 technical report entitled “Independent Technical Report for the TV Tower Exploration Property, Çanakkale, Western Turkey", effective January 21, 2014 and dated February 28, 2014, co-authored by Casey M. Hetman, P.Geo. with SRK Consulting (Canada) Inc.; James N. Gray, P. Geo. of Advantage Geoservices Ltd.; and Gary Simmons, BSc, Metallurgical Engineering, of GL Simmons Consulting, LLC.,  filed under Pilot Gold’s Issuer Profile on SEDAR at http://www.sedar.com.

3) Source SNL Metals & Mining

Moira Smith, Ph.D., P.Geo., Chief Geologist, Pilot Gold, is the Company's designated Qualified Person within the meaning of NI 43-101 and has reviewed and validated that the information contained herein is accurate.

Click on the thumbnails below to view maps of TV Tower.

Regional geology
The TV Tower property is located in the south-central portion of the Biga Peninsula in Western Turkey, a lithologically and structurally complex region with a long history of industrial mineral (clay, quartz, coal, dimension stone), gold and base metal mining. 

The basement rocks of the Biga Peninsula consist of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesozoic accretionary mélange consisting of eclogitic, clastic and carbonate rocks.  Intrusive rocks ranging from granite to quartz diorite cut these basement rocks, which are in turn overlain by calc-alkaline and alkaline Oligocene-Miocene volcanic and related sedimentary rocks ranging in age from 42-23 Ma.  The volcanic suite includes andesite, latite, dacite, rhyodacite flow dome facies and volcaniclastic sequences (including ignimbrites), and is the primary host for epithermal gold and silver mineralization within the Biga Peninsula.   This sequence is intruded by quartz diorite to quartz monzonite bodies, giving rise to associated Cu-Au porphyry and skarn mineralization.

Structural geology
The structural geology of the Biga Peninsula is complex. One of the main complexities arises from the fact that the region is a transtensional zone subject to active dextral strike-slip faulting and N–S extension. The active faults in the region are oriented NW-SE, NE-SW and E-W.

The most prominent faults are a number of NE–SW-trending, dextral strike-slip fault systems that represent branches of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (e.g., Yenice-Gönen and Etili faults). The second group of faults comprise E–W-trending normal faults. They commonly occur along the northern margin of the Gulf of Edremit and along the southern margin of Lake Manyas.

NE–SW-trending faults controlled both sedimentation and volcanic activity during the Oligocene–Early Miocene period, when the lower volcanic association and coeval sediments were deposited. Late Miocene Ezine alkaline basalts are common along E–W-trending normal faults, thus suggesting a possible feeder relationship.

All post-basement volcano-sedimentary sequences show a clear tilt to the NW, N or NE by up to 35 degrees, which is more pronounced in the vicinity of major structures. Tilting of the rocks could be due to movement related to the North Anatolian Fault System.

Local Geology
Lithology:
The geology at TV Tower comprises Cretaceous-aged metamorphic basement rocks on the western and eastern edges of the property and Eocene sedimentary rocks over the rest of the property.   The latter are intruded by Eocene - Miocene intrusive rocks in the southern portion of the property, and overlain by dominantly Miocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. The volcanic rocks are dominantly comprised of andesitic flows, breccias and subvolcanic intrusive rocks at lower elevations, while rocks at higher elevations largely comprise dacitic ash and lapilli tuff. All rock types are variably altered, brecciated and mineralized, and display a range of intensities of brittle deformation.

Structure:
The TV Tower area is highly influenced by structures which relate to or which are part of the North Anatolian Fault System. The area is traversed by a large number of WNW-ENE-trending, steeply south-dipping normal faults, parallel to a regional-scale joint pattern.  NE-trending steep faults have also been noted.  A moderately north-dipping fault separates the andesitic sequence from the dacite tuff sequence at KCD.  North-trending steep faults have been noted in several locations, and may play a role in the distribution of mineralization at KCD.

Alteration:
Alteration at TV Tower is typical of high sulphidation gold and porphyry copper gold systems.  In the eastern half of the property, ridges and peaks are underlain by massive to vuggy quartz “ledges” representing silicification along more permeable volcanilithic strata, alternating with argillic and advanced argillic altered volcanic rocks.  Clay alteration includes kaolinite, dickite, alunite, pyrophyllite, and illite. Disseminated pyrite or related oxides (limonite, goethite, hematite etc.) are found throughout the area.  Alteration in the western portion of the property appears to represent deeper levels of the mineralized system, with fewer quartz ledges and areas of sericite alteration possibly transitional into a porphyry environment.

Breccias:
Breccias are an important ore-host at TV Tower. They vary from breccias related to primary volcanic processes, to hydrothermal activity and structural processes, with a variety of observed overprinting relationships. 

Mineralization
To date, 12 targets have been defined by a combination of geophysical, geochemical and geological methods. Nine targets are epithermal (Kücükdag, Kayalı, Karaayı, Sarp, Nacak epithermal, Kestancilik, Kartaldag West, Columbaz and Tesbihcukuru) and two are porphyry-related (Nacak porphyry and Kiraz). Gumusluk is a listwanite target.

The KCD target is located in the northeastern part of the TV Tower Property.  The area is underlain by (from bottom to top) andesite breccia and welded tuff; massive lapilli-ash and ash tuff grading laterally to welded tuff; reworked tuff, mudstone and siltstone comprising a fluvial-lacustrine basin sequence; lapilli-ash tuff; andesite breccia and flows; and ash and lapilli-ash tuff.  The lower sequence of andesite breccia and welded tuff are separated from the other rock units by a moderate-angle fault.  Gold mineralization at KCD is largely hosted in the lower lapilli-ash tuff sequence.  Silver mineralization is largely hosted in the fluvial-lacustrine sedimentary rocks and overlying lapilli-ash tuff and volcanic breccia.  A recently recognized upper zone of oxidized gold mineralization is hosted in the upper lapilli-ash tuff sequence.

Initial drilling at Kücükdag returned some of the best gold intercepts reported to date in the district, including 57.8 metres of 9.51 g/t gold within a broader interval of 136.2 metres of 4.28 g/t gold in drill hole KCD-02.  The high-grade gold intercepts were returned from a hydrothermally overprinted, structurally controlled breccia zone located within the lower lapilli-ash tuff unit.  Wall rocks and clasts are strongly silicified and pyritized.  Breccia cement includes enargite, pyrite, dickite, alunite, quartz and barite, representing numerous pulses of hydrothermal fluids.  Gold is most closely related to pyrite and enargite.  Drilling in 2012 and 2013 has identified other pipe-like breccia bodies and other styles of gold mineralization, including sheeted vein swarms and structurally and stratigraphically controlled zones of vuggy quartz.  The gold zone as currently defined by drilling measures approximately 300 x 400 metres.  The zone of silver mineralization extends over an area measuring approximately 600 x 650 metres and comprises a sheet-like body, the dimensions of which are controlled by stratigraphy.  Mineralization consists of very fine-grained pyrite and marcasite and quartz gangue. 

A few kms to the south of Kücükdag, the Sarp target occupies a prominent ridge.  This target is characterized by extensive massive to vuggy quartz ledges underlain by argillic to advanced argillic-altered and pyritized rocks.   At lower elevations to the east, a swarm of low sulphidation epithermal Au and Ag-bearing quartz veins has been identified (Columbaz target). 

The Kayalı target includes a number of stacked vuggy quartz and massive quartz ledges and strong advanced argillic to argillic alteration over a 2 km x 1.5 km area.  Quartz ledges appear to have been developed in lapilli and ash tuff layers. Gold mineralization is hosted mainly within at least two WNW-ESE trending ribs zone with quartz and hematite-cemented crackle breccias.  Rock channel samples returned values in the range of 1 to ~10 g/t Au. Drilling to date has returned up to 114.5 metres averaging 0.87 g/t gold. Oxidized, gold-mineralized zones are locally underlain by zones of supergene and hypogene copper mineralization (chalcocite and covellite, respectively) with individual assay intervals up to 6% copper.

Drilling at Karaayı by previous operators has intersected near-surface, oxidized, high-sulphidation style gold mineralization, which is on strike to the west of the known oxidized gold mineralized zone at Kayalı. In addition, exploration has identified the presence of supergene copper and porphyry style copper-gold mineralization on the Karaayı property. 

Moira Smith, Ph.D., P.Geo., Chief Geologist, Pilot Gold, is the Company's designated Qualified Person within the meaning of NI 43-101 and has reviewed and validated that the information contained herein is accurate.

Further information is available in the technical report entitled "Updated Technical Report on the TV Tower Exploration Property, Çanakkale, Western Turkey", effective July 15, 2012 and dated August 3, 2012, prepared by Paul Gribble, B.Sc., C.Eng., FIMMM, UK Manager, Geology of Tetra Tech WEI Inc., under Pilot Gold's Issuer Profile on SEDAR (www.sedar.com).

Drilling at TV Tower began in 2010 and consisted of an initial 4,100 metres, highlighted by 57.8 metres of 9.51 grams/tonne (“g/t”) gold (“Au”) within a broader interval of 136.2 metres of 4.28 g/t Au in drill hole KCD-02 at the KCD target.

By 2011, six additional targets were identified for detailed follow-up and more than 14,000 metres were drilled at KCD and two additional targets (Kayalı and Sarp). The discovery hole at the Kayalı target (KYD-01) returned 114.5 metres averaging 0.87 g/t Au in oxide.

Pilot Gold became operator of TV Tower as part of an earn-in agreement announced on June 21, 2012. As operator, Pilot Gold completed an aggressive exploration program in 2012 that consisted of 14,440 metres of diamond core drilling at KCD, property-wide airborne magnetic/EM geophysical surveys and ongoing surface mapping and geochemical sampling. Pilot Gold elected to focus drilling in 2012 on testing and expanding the known gold mineralization at the KCD target identified in previous drill campaigns.

Gold highlights from Pilot Gold’s 2012 drill program at KCD included:

  • 5.94 g/t Au, 12.6 g/t silver (“Ag”), and 0.53% copper (“Cu”) over 137.1 metres in KCD-39, including 18.88 g/t Au, 13.1 g/t Ag and 1.36% Cu over 27.0 metres;
  • 227 g/t Auover 12.0 metres in KCD-50;
  • 2.33 g/t Auover 93.5 metres in KCD-75, including 17.4 g/t Auover 3.5 metres; and,
  • 6.59 g/t Auover 34.2 metres in KCD-80, including 42.0 g/t Auover 3.7 metres.

A near-surface zone of silver-only mineralization that overlies the high-grade gold-silver-copper zone was also targeted. Silver highlights from KCD included:

  • 69.8 g/t Ag over 110.6 metres in KCD-66, including 87.1 g/t Ag over 71.0 metres;
  • 52.1 g/t Ag over 111.8 metres in KCD-68, including 150 g/t Ag over 8.3 metres;
  • 85.9 g/t Ag over 135.5 metres in KCD-94, including 1389 g/t Ag over 4.8 metres; and
  • 102 g/t Ag over 73 metres in KCD-101, including 260 g/t Ag over 20.3 metres.

In 2013, Pilot undertook an exploration program consisting of core and RC drilling, geologic modeling and ongoing surface work. Seventy two drill holes comprising 16,735 metres were completed at KCD. Drill highlights include:

  • KCD 142: 15.3 g/t Auover 45.2 metres, including 386 g/t Auover 1.5 metres
  • KCD 134: 327 g/t Ag over 14.5 metres, including 547 g/t Ag over 8.5 metres
  • KCD 108: 93.0 g/t Ag over 122.7 metres
  • KCD 102: 25.7 g/t Au, 47.2 g/t Ag and 2.12% Cu over 16.5 metres, including 142 g/t Au, 141 g/t Ag and 3.39% Cu over 2.0 metres

A new zone of near-surface, oxidized gold mineralization up to 10 metres thick was discovered through four drill sites spaced approximately 130 metres apart, overlying the silver zone and north of the high-grade sulphide gold zone.

The Kayalı target is a high-sulphidation, shallow oxide gold target located approximately eight kilometres south of the KCD target. Discovery hole KYD-01 returned 0.87 g/t Auover 114.5 metres from a depth of 4.5 metres, including 2.85 g/t Au over 15.4 metres. The 2013 drill program comprised approximately 3,500 drilled metres.

The 20 km2 Karaayı target is contiguous with the Kayalı oxide gold target. The Karaayı tenure contains some of the strongest and most extensive gold-in-soil anomalies in the TV Tower district. Drilling at Karaayı by previous operators intersected near-surface, oxidized, high-sulphidation style gold mineralization, which is on strike to the west of the known oxidized gold mineralized zone at Kayalı.

Infill mapping, soil sampling, rock sampling and compiled drill data completed by Pilot Gold in 2013 indicate the presence of a potential shallow, bulk-tonnage oxide gold-mineralized system at least four kilometres long between the Kayalı and Karaayı targets. Further drilling revealed the presence of an extensive blanket of supergene copper mineralization underlying the oxide gold zones. In addition, drilling and surface work suggest that two or more copper-gold porphyry systems are present at K2, which includes the Kayalı and Karaayı targets in the southern portion of TV Tower. 

Supergene copper drill highlights from K2 include:

  • 1.29% Cu over 34.1 metres in KYD-39, including

               o   1.90% Cu over 20.8 metres

  • 0.35% Cu over 65.0 metres in KYD-43
  • 0.35% Cu over 64.2 metres in KYD-34

Karaayı Cu-Au porphyry target highlights:

  • 0.30% Cu and 0.13 g/t Au over 224.8 metres in KRD002, including

               o   0.59% Cu and 0.18 g/t Au over 37.0 metres

  •  0.16% Cu and 0.18 g/t Au over 154.4 metres in KRD004
  • 0.19% Cu and 0.17 g/t Au over 257.2 metres in KAD02

Additional targets may also be tested. We have also initiated metallurgical testing at KCD, and have begun preliminary engineering and environmental studies on TV Tower.

For a table of 2010/2011 drill results, please click here.

For a table of 2012/2013 drill results relating to gold mineralization, please click here.

For a table of 2012/2013 drill results relating to silver mineralization,  please click here. 

For further details on the KCD resource estimate, see the NI 43-101 technical report entitled “Independent Technical Report for the TV Tower Exploration Property, Çanakkale, Western Turkey", effective January 21, 2014 and dated February 28, 2014, co-authored by Casey M. Hetman, P.Geo. with SRK Consulting (Canada) Inc.; James N. Gray, P. Geo. of Advantage Geoservices Ltd.; and Gary Simmons, BSc, Metallurgical Engineering, of GL Simmons Consulting, LLC.,  filed under Pilot Gold’s Issuer Profile on SEDAR at http://www.sedar.com.

Moira Smith, Ph.D., P.Geo., Chief Geologist, Pilot Gold, is the Company's designated Qualified Person within the meaning of NI 43-101 and has reviewed and validated that the information contained herein is accurate.

 

Click on the links below to view technical reports on the TV Tower Project.